## 4.15. Cultural and other non-algorithmic gismu

The following gismu were not made by the gismu creation algorithm. They are, in effect, coined words similar to fu'ivla. They are exceptions to the otherwise mandatory gismu creation algorithm where there was sufficient justification for such exceptions. Except for the small metric prefixes and the assignable predicates beginning with brod- , they all end in the letter o , which is otherwise a rare letter in Lojban gismu.

The following gismu represent concepts that are sufficiently unique to Lojban that they were either coined from combining forms of other gismu, or else made up out of whole cloth. These gismu are thus conceptually similar to lujvo even though they are only five letters long; however, unlike lujvo, they have rafsi assigned to them for use in building more complex lujvo. Assigning gismu to these concepts helps to keep the resulting lujvo reasonably short.

 1st assignable predicate 2nd assignable predicate 3rd assignable predicate 4th assignable predicate 5th assignable predicate structure word (from cmalu valsi) Lojbanic (from logji bangu) compound word (from pluja valsi) Mathematical EXpression

It is important to understand that even though cmavo , lojbo , and lujvo were made up from parts of other gismu, they are now full-fledged gismu used in exactly the same way as all other gismu, both in grammar and in word formation.

The following three groups of gismu represent concepts drawn from the international language of science and mathematics. They are used for concepts that are represented in most languages by a root which is recognized internationally.

Small metric prefixes (values less than 1):

 .1 deci .01 centi .001 milli 10 -6 micro 10 -9 nano 10 -12 pico 10 -15 femto 10 -18 atto 10 -21 zepto 10 -24 yocto

Large metric prefixes (values greater than 1):

 10 deka 100 hecto 1000 kilo 10 6 mega 10 9 giga 10 12 tera 10 15 peta 10 18 exa 10 21 zetta 10 24 yotta

Other scientific or mathematical terms:

The gismu sinso and tanjo were only made non-algorithmically because they were identical (having been borrowed from a common source) in all the dictionaries that had translations. The other terms in this group are units in the international metric system; some metric units, however, were made by the ordinary process (usually because they are different in Chinese).

Finally, there are the cultural gismu, which are also borrowed, but by modifying a word from one particular language, instead of using the multi-lingual gismu creation algorithm. Cultural gismu are used for words that have local importance to a particular culture; other cultures or languages may have no word for the concept at all, or may borrow the word from its home culture, just as Lojban does. In such a case, the gismu algorithm, which uses weighted averages, doesn't accurately represent the frequency of usage of the individual concept. Cultural gismu are not even required to be based on the six major languages.

The six Lojban source languages:

 Chinese (from “Zhōngguó”) English Hindi Spanish Russian Arabic

Seven other widely spoken languages that were on the list of candidates for gismu-making, but weren't used:

 Bengali Portuguese Bahasa Melayu/Bahasa Indonesia Japanese (from “Nippon”) German (from „Deutsch“) French (from « Français ») Urdu

(Urdu and Hindi began as the same language with different writing systems, but have now become somewhat different, principally in borrowed vocabulary. Urdu-speakers were counted along with Hindi-speakers when weights were assigned for gismu-making purposes.)

Countries with a large number of speakers of any of the above languages (where the meaning of large is dependent on the specific language):

 English: American British Scottish Australian Canadian

 Spanish: Argentinian Mexican

 Russian: Soviet/USSR Ukrainian

 Arabic: Palestinian Algerian Jordanian Libyan Lebanese Egyptian Moroccan Iraqi Saudi Syrian

 Bahasa Melayu/Bahasa Indonesia: Indonesian Malaysian

 Portuguese: Brazilian

 Urdu: Pakistani

The continents (and oceanic regions) of the Earth:

 North American (from berti merko) Antarctican (from cadzu cipni) South American (from “Quechua”) African Polynesian/Oceanic European Asiatic

A few smaller but historically important cultures:

 Latin/Roman Sanskrit Hebrew/Israeli/Jewish Greek (from «Hellas»)

Major world religions:

 Buddhist Taoist Islamic/Moslem Christian

A few terms that cover multiple groups of the above:

 Jehovist (Judeo-Christian-Moslem) Semitic Slavic Hispanic (New World Spanish)